Sample Processing: From Acquisition to Analysis


Biological and chemical samples, meticulously collected, form the basis for groundbreaking discoveries in scientific research. However, the process of transforming a raw sample into meaningful data for researchers across diverse fields is well-defined and intricate. This blog post details the critical steps involved in this process.

1. Scrupulous Sample Acquisition

The first step is the scrupulous acquisition of the sample. This ensures the sample accurately represents the target population or system being studied. Depending on the sample type (tissue, blood, soil, water), this may involve aseptic techniques for biological samples or specialized collection tools for environmental samples. Rigorous protocols are essential to minimize contamination and preserve the sample's inherent properties.

Requisite Steps Leading to Bioanalysis: Acquisition, Storage, Processing, and Analysis of Blood-derived Samples

2. Sample Processing and Preservation

Following acquisition, samples often undergo a series of processing steps to prepare them for further analysis. These steps, like homogenization (biological) or filtration (chemical), achieve homogeneity within the sample. Preservation methods, such as cryopreservation or specific buffer addition, stabilize the sample's biochemical composition and prevent degradation.

3. Sample Fractionation and Enrichment

For complex samples containing numerous biomolecules or chemical components, fractionation techniques may be implemented. These techniques, such as chromatography or centrifugation, separate the sample into distinct fractions. Each fraction may be enriched with specific analytes of interest. This targeted enrichment improves the sensitivity and accuracy of subsequent analyses.

An overview of enrichment and fractionation techniques applied in combination with MS-based targeted approaches that are described in this review. Various enrichment and fractionation strategies such as SDS-PAGE, immunodepletion, isoelectric focusing (IEF) and immunoprecipitation at the protein level and stable isotope standards and capture by antipeptide antibodies (SISCAPA), IEF, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX), hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and PRISM at the peptide level are applied prior to targeted proteomics measurements. Three targeted MS strategies including selected reaction monitoring (SRM), parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and targeted data-independent acquisition (DIA) are pictured.

4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

The culmination of the process is the analysis of the sample using various techniques. Quantitative analysis methods, like spectrophotometry or mass spectrometry, allow researchers to measure the exact concentration of specific analytes within the sample. Conversely, qualitative techniques, such as gel electrophoresis or immunoassays, provide information on the presence or absence of specific molecules.

quantitative data works on the quantity and analysing numerical data (present in the form of graphs, tables, or charts) to find patterns and trends is known as quantitative data analysis. In order to systematically measure variables and report the collected data in the numerical form, quantitative research uses numbers and statistics.

5. Data Acquisition and Interpretation

The data generated from the chosen analytical technique(s) is meticulously acquired and documented. Depending on the complexity of the data, researchers may employ advanced computational tools and statistical analyses to extract meaningful patterns and trends. By meticulously interpreting the data in the context of the experimental design and relevant scientific literature, researchers can formulate robust conclusions and advance scientific knowledge.


The successful transformation of a raw biological or chemical sample into interpretable data relies on a rigorously defined process. From the initial acquisition to the final analysis, each step plays a vital role in ensuring the integrity and reliability of the data obtained. By adhering to these rigorous protocols, researchers can embark on the path to groundbreaking discoveries fueled by the power of meticulously collected and analyzed samples.

Sample Processing: From Acquisition to Analysis
Gen store May 24, 2024
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